Causes of Osteoarthritis [How to Prevent Osteoarthritis?]

Causes of Osteoarthritis

One of the most common degenerative joint disorders is osteoarthritis (OA). Patients often tell their doctors, “I cured my osteoarthritis,” & then look for ways to make this hope come true. The causes of osteoarthritis are unclear despite ongoing research. However, a combination of mechanical & biological factors may cause the condition.

Let’s examine the causes of osteoarthritis, as well as its stages, symptoms, diagnosis, how to prevent osteoarthritis & the available treatments.

Osteoarthritis Pathophysiology

Understanding the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis is essential for effective treatment. As the cartilage deteriorates (due to the release of proinflammatory cytokines & enzymes & the formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs), it becomes rigid & brittle, resulting in pain & movement restriction. Over time, cartilage may deteriorate completely, causing bones to rub directly against one another.

Pain is the primary osteoarthritis symptom, particularly after prolonged activity. Additional osteoarthritis symptoms include:

  • Stiffness, particularly upon waking up or being inactive
  • Tenderness when mild pressure is applied
  • Loss of flexibility
  • A grating sensation while in motion or Crepitus
  • Swelling (or inflammation) around the joint

Different joints cause different types of osteoarthritis:

  • Knee Osteoarthritis: The most common type, which affects millions worldwide.
  • Hip Osteoarthritis: This affects the hip joint & can affect walking ability.
  • Hand Osteoarthritis: Affects the thumb’s base & the individual fingers.
  • Spine Osteoarthritis: Targets the neck & lower back.

Causes of Osteoarthritis

OA is the primary cause of chronic disability among the elderly. The disease primarily affects weight-bearing joints, such as the knees, hips, cervical & lumbar spines, & feet. Also frequently affected are the distal interphalangeal (DIP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), & first carpometacarpal (CMC) joints.

The common causes of osteoarthritis, such as:

  • Aging: Age-related changes in collagen matrix traits such as declines in chondrocyte responsiveness, decreased lubricating fluid inside the joints, & dropped repair ability worsen cartilage deterioration, an indicator of OA. 
  • Joint Injuries & Mechanical Stress: A joint injury from sports, work, or accidents can be one of the primary causes of OA in old age. According to a study, knee injuries raise knee OA risk six-fold.
  • Obesity: Joint cartilage wears down more quickly when there is more stress on weight-bearing joints like the knees, hips, & lower back. 
  • Genetics: Some individuals have a genetic predisposition to develop OA. Evidence from familial & twin research points to an inheritance factor, although the genes responsible have yet to be identified.
  • Bone deformities: Malformed joints or damaged cartilage may affect a person’s risk of developing OA from birth.
  • Certain Occupations: Occupations involving repetitive stress on specific joints can increase the risk or predispose joints to an accelerated onset of OA.

What are the 4 Stages of Osteoarthritis?


What Is It

Symptoms & Signs



Stage 0 


Normal, healthy joints or cellular damage from early OA. No symptoms to note; potential alterations to the joint lining. MRI examination OTC medications, supplements, lifestyle changes
Stage 1 

(Early or Doubtful)

Early OA, minor cartilage loss, & bone spur development. Some may experience mild pain, & cartilage loss begins. Physical exam, MRI, X-rays, laboratory tests Lifestyle changes, supplements, OTC medications
Stage 2 

(Mild or Minimal)

Growth of bone spurs & minor cartilage degeneration. Increased activity-induced pain, rigidity, & mobility restriction. X-rays, symptoms assessment, physical exam NSAIDs, lifestyle changes, low-impact exercises
Stage 3 (Moderate) Cartilage wear & visible joint space constriction. Constant pain, morning stiffness, & joint swelling Symptoms assessment, physical exam, X-rays, MRI NSAIDs, pain medication, injections, physical therapy
Stage 4 (Severe) Significant cartilage loss & joint degeneration. Severe pain, activity restriction, stiffness, & inflammation. Symptoms assessment, physical exam, lab tests, X-rays, MRI Osteotomy, arthroplasty (joint replacement)


Osteoarthritis Diagnosis, Treatment & Preventive Measures:

A comprehensive medical history, physical examination, & imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRI, are necessary for an accurate osteoarthritis diagnosis. 

Depending on the disease’s stage & severity, conservative treatments like physiotherapy or surgical procedures can help alleviate pain & enhance joint function. Dr. Sameep Sohoni, an Orthopedic Doctor in Thane, provides sophisticated osteoarthritis treatment solutions to meet patients’ demands.

How to prevent osteoarthritis is as follows:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight relieves strain on weight-bearing joints.
  • Keep Active while engaging in regular exercise to strengthen the muscles surrounding the joints.
  • Alternate between repetitive tasks or use (or wear) joint protection to prevent chronic stress.
  • Wear protective gear when engaging in sports to prevent accidents.


Understanding the “causes of osteoarthritis” & its impacts can aid patients & medical professionals in managing this degenerative condition. Although complete solutions are unusual, symptomatic relief & functional restoration are attainable due to modern medical advancements.

Dr. Sameep Sohoni – The Best Joint Replacement Surgeon in Thane

Dr. Sameep Sohoni, a renowned Knee Replacement Surgeon in Thane, is an expert in robotic knee replacement surgery, providing remarkable results & patient satisfaction. He’s the most famous orthopedic specialist, with over 12,000 patients & 12 years of experience in robotic joint replacement, fracture surgery, bone & joint disorders, sports injuries, & arthritis treatment.

If you are experiencing osteoarthritis symptoms, consult with Dr. Sameep Sohoni, a Joint Replacement Surgeon in Thane, who has extensive experience diagnosing & treating osteoarthritis. He will provide you with expert guidance & treatment options to manage your symptoms & enhance your quality of life.


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